"Fire and Blood."
―Words of House Targaryen

House Targaryen (known post-conquest as House Targaryen of King's Landing) is a former great house of Westeros, the only family of dragonlords to have survived the Doom of Valyria and the former founding and royal house of the Seven Kingdoms. Descended from the great empire of Old Valyria, House Targaryen left Valyria twelve years before the Doom, where they resided on the island of Dragonstone for more than a century, until Aegon the Conqueror and his sister-wives began their conquest of Westeros in 2 BC. The Targaryens ruled over Westeros for nearly three hundred years, where a total of seventeen Targaryens sat the Iron Throne. Aerys II was the last of this dynasty, as a rebellion and his subsequent death led to the near extinction of House Targaryen: it was survived by his two children, Viserys III and Daenerys, who were taken across Essos to hide. While other, previously obscure Targaryens have popped up in Westeros since then, House Targaryen's reign on the Iron Throne was effectively over. However, the rise of Daenerys has led to House Targaryen once again gaining prominence and (as per the show's events) has begun a campaign to reclaim the Iron Throne.